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Ariadne Pfad:


Education in Greece

National flag of Greece at Drapetsona Beach 2013.
National flag of Greece at Drapetsona Beach 2013.

Since 2010, Greece has been in the media due to its sovereign debt crisis. One of the sectors that was severely affected by the subsequent economy measures was the educational sector.
From January to June 2014, Greece assumed the Presidency of the European Council. Two good reasons for us to shed a light on the education system in this country.
Our webdossier provides information on the following topics:

General Information on Education

The Greek Embassy in Germany provides here some statistical facts and summarizes basic principles of the Greek education system (in German and Greek only).
[Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Greece; Germany
The website of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) provides ample information on academic exchange and cooperation with Greece. Information only available in German. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

The country dossier for Greece, compiled by the International Bureau of Education of the Unesco (IBE), provides information on statistics (from the World Data on Education - WDE), national education reports, education plans and policies, a bibliography (partly with fulltexts) and links to other sources. [Abstract: Editors of Education [...]

This site presents short summaries of the Greek schooling, university and marking system as well as of political associations only in German.
"anabin" is an information database of the German Conference of Ministers of Education - Central Office for Foreign Education (Kultusministerkonferenz - Zentralstelle für ausländisches [...]

Eurydice is the "Network on education systems and policies in Europe". Amongst others, it provides very comprehensive country profiles on on education systems in Europe (formerly know as "Eurypedia"). All areas of education are covered from early childhood to adult education, as well as overarching issues. Each country participating in [...]

Authorities in Educational Policy

English information about the Greek Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs are hardly provided. Content in Greek refers to the Ministry’s structure and organization like its four General Secretariats – of Research and Technology, Lifelong Learning, Youth and Religious Affairs. Furthermore it links to information about reforms [...]

A stylised wave with a ship and the lines 'GR 2014 eu'.
Logo of the Greek Presidency of the European Council from January to June 2014.
Copyright: Hellenic Presidency

The General Secretariat for Research and Technology (GSRT) in the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs of Greece is e.g. responsible for research cooperation and support in science and technology. At a multilateral level its mission is to harmonize research and [...]

The General Secretariat for Youth develops a set of activities and programmes aiming at the core of youth policies and more specifically, in the following sectors: Participation, Information, Leisure, Entrepreneurship. The GSY pays special attention to the cooperation with civil society, especially with youth associations and local [...]

The General Secretariat for Lifelong Learning in Greece operates under the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs and is e.g. responsible for:
- Development and administration of initial and continuing vocational education and training and general non-formal [...]

The Institute of Educational Policy (IEP) was established in 2011 with Public Law 3966 (Government Gazette Α΄ 118/24-05-2011) and is supervised by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. IEP operates for the benefit of the public interest as an executive scientific body which supports the Ministry of Education and [...]

Δ.Ο.Α.Τ.Α.Π. (Hellenic NARIC) is an organization supervised by the Hellenic Ministry of Education. It is responsible for the recognition of university or technological degrees that are awarded by foreign Higher Education Institutions (H.E.I.). The Hellenic NARIC is also responsible for providing information [...]

Educational Reports, Statistics, Assessments

Under "Population and Social Conditions" EL.STAT offers data on following educational topics: Primary Education, Secondary Education, Post-secondary Education, Tertiary Education, Special Education, Education expenditure, Lifelong learning. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

The Unesco Institute for Statistics (UIS) provides the most recent basic data on education in Greece. You will find information on the following issues:
* General information
* Education System
* Participation in education
* Progression and completion in education
* Education expenditures
* [...]

The OECD publishes their educational news from and on a specific country in this section. You will also find publication announcements like e.g. "Education at a Glance", and other studies and reports. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

This interactive website is provided by the OECD. It can be used to compare Greece's results from different international educational assessments (PISA, ...) as well as Greece's educational statistics with that of the average OECD results or with the results of other countries. You can create graphs, tables and others, which can be [...]

Albania; Andorra; Armenia; Austria; Azerbaijan; Belgium; Bosnia and Herzegovina; Bulgaria; Croatia [...]
This website is run by the "European Higher Education Area" and provides national reports on the status of the Bologna Process since 2003 from about 50 European countries. You can find the latest report at the top of the page of each [...]

Organisations & Professional Associations

The Hellenic Association for Education (HEAd) offers not just a bilateral cooperation with the University of Dundee in an undergraduate and postgraduate programm. It also forces with the Research Centre for Learning & Innovation activities at European and International levels in a number of significant learning innovation projects. [...]

The main aim of POSDEP since its establishment in 1989 has been to ensure that Greek governments will provide students with public, free university education and that the universities will be totally independent; fiscally, administratively, institutionally. POSDEP is mainly in contact with the Federation of Associations of Technical [...]

OLME is one of the Civil Servants’ Federations; it consists of 91 local unions and is the only secondary state school teachers union in Greece with more than 55,000 members. OLME was established in 1924 with the purpose to secure teachers’ working rights and to promote Greek culture. Nowadays OLME focuses on:
- The co-ordination [...]

The Teachers' Federation Greece is mainly active in primary education politics and has its seat in Athens. DOE was established in 1922.
Besides its commitment to improve primary education or to protect and promote professional and material interests of primary school teachers other purposes are declared in the [...]

Universities & Educational Research

The National Center of Social Research –ΕΚΚΕ- was established in 1959 under the auspices of UNESCO and is the only public institution in Greece dedicated to the social sciences. ΕΚΚΕ is a public law legal entity supervised by the General Secretariat of Research and Technology of the Ministry of [...]

The Athens Institute for Education and Research (ATINER) was established in October 1995 as a non-profit, non-government, non- partisan organization to promote education and research in applied fields.- This website provides information on the organizational structure, the mission of the institute and its activities: organization of an [...]

The webpage of the Hellenic Educational Society informs about their objectives, functions and provides helpful links (Σύνδεσμοι) on Greek educational institutions in politics and research. There is, too the possibility to have an online insight in already published issues of the 'Pedagogical [...]

HAEA was founded in 2004 and has today around 800 members. Beside organizing and planning of international conferences and programs, HAEA publishes the scientific journal 'Adult Education'. More information towards this and other activities of the association are provided at their homepage in Greek.

The Institute of Educational Policy (IEP) was established in 2011 with Public Law 3966 (Government Gazette Α΄ 118/24-05-2011) and is supervised by the Ministry of Education and Religious Affairs. IEP operates for the benefit of the public interest as an executive scientific body which supports the Ministry of Education and [...]

The National Hellenic Research Foundation (NHRF) is a multidisciplinary Research Centre. Its aim is to perform, finance and support high-level research projects in the areas of humanities and natural sciences. During its years of operation the NHRF has developed and performed research projects in the fields of history, physics, [...]

"The Association of Greek Researchers is a lobbying association of Greek researchers that are employed in the public research centres and institutes representing the interests of its members." The NGO was established in 1996 and has its seat in Athens. On their webpage they provide information about their activities and offer a list of [...]

The oldest institution of higher education in the modern Greek state is the National and Kapodestrian University of Athens, usually referred to simply as University of Athens (UoA). The UoA was founded in 1837 and unites today 8 departments of various faculties. The department for Educational Sciences for example consists of the Faculty [...]

The website provides information on internal organisation, history, contemporary research projects and study programs. Unfortunately, some categories have no content. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

The Department no longer provides an English website. But you can find a journal that has English and French articles, the Mediterranean Journal of Education. Until 2020, the department published the [...]

The School of Humanities offers nine courses (three undergraduate courses and six postgraduate courses) relating to education and culture. ΣΑΣ organizes international conferences every two years on 'Open and Distance Education'. It has an associate Scientific Union of Adult Education and the Scientific Association. The [...]

Research Literature & Scientific Journals

Twice a year the online-periodical HPC (Hellenic Pedagogical Cosmos) informs in an rather unusual format and content presentation about educational and pedagogical issues and developments in contemporary Greece. HPC seeks, primarily, to serve the needs of all those Anglophones whose access to educational topics is limited due to the [...]

This link leads to articles on the topic 'education' of the Journal of Modern Greek Studies published since 1983. It is the only scholarly periodical to focus exclusively on modern Greece. The Journal publishes critical analyses of Greek social, cultural, and political affairs, covering the period from the late Byzantine Empire to the [...]

"The Journal for Critical Education Policy Studies (JCEPS) is a peer-reviewed international scholarly journal published by The Institute for Education Policy Studies (IEPS). The free, online version is published in association with the University of Athens (Greece)." Therefore, a focus is on education in Greece. You will also find many articles from Greek researchers in [...]

The German Education Portal provides an integrated search over several databases in Germany and two international databases containing literature from educational research. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Educational Reform in Times of Crisis

A crowd with the persons in the front row holding up a banner with a Greek inscript.
Student protest against educational reforms in Athens, 01.09.2011.

Education Worldwide wants to put a special emphasis on develop­ments in educational policy in relation to the Greek financial crisis. In our section "Educational Reform in Times of Crisis", you will not only find German and international scientific analysis of current processes and information on German-Greek cooperation pro­jects. Furthermore, you will find information for example on the "Athene Plan" adopted in 2013 by the Greek parlament, that decided upon job cuts in the school sector, flexibilisation of higher education personal and the merging of universities - and that entailed a lot of protests.

The e-journal "" (~ "think about it") is published by the two well-known German trade unions IG Metall and Verdi. This special issue deals with vocational education / vocational training (WET) in Europe. The article about Greece takes into account the sovereign debt crisis and hence also societal crisis since 2010. It establishes a link between the management [...]

[Please note: As the original website is not available anymore, we link to a copy from the Internet Archive as of 2016].
"Education in Crisis" provides under the section 'Country Profiles' > 'Europe' also information on Greece. You will find an overview of past and current issues of changes in the educational system, some facts and [...]

The author is the Genereal Secretary of the Greek Federation of Secondary State School Teachers (OLME) (as of 2012). In his article, he describes the consequences of the Government-EU-IMF policies during the Greek financial crisis (since 2010) on labour and education in Greece. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide].

Greece; Europe
Article by Prof. Alexandra Ioannidou from Athen for the Rosa Luxemburg Foundation, a foundation which is close to the German political party "Die Linke" (The Left). Ioannidou provides a critical analysis of the educational reforms in Greece which are a direct consequence of the Greek government-debt crisis starting around [...]

This article provides information on the reforms in the higher education sector in Greece, which were a consequence of the Greek government-debt crisis starting sometime in 2009/2010. The article was published in February 2013 on the website of ICEF GmbH: "Based in Bonn, Germany, ICEF GmbH (International Consultants for Education and [...]

"Extensive institutional changes and restructuring are taking place in higher education within the context of the new managerialism's ideological principles and administrative practices aimed at the fulfilment of the goals of the neoliberal political dominance. These changes involve the massification of universities, along with the reduction of government spending and the [...]

Greece; Germany
[Please note: The original site is not available anymore. Therefore, we link to a copy of the site from the Internet Archive as of 2014]
The German Ministry of Education and Research informs about current research co-operations with Greece that were started at the beginning of 2014. There is also a short description of [...]

Journal Articles & Radio Broadcasts

Special issue of the German Radio Deutschlandradio / Deutschlandfunk, broadcast PisaPlus, 07.06.2013, available only in German

Germany; Greece
The Tagesspiegel informs briefly about current educational reforms and cooperation in Greece in the beginning of 2014. Topics are the 'Athena Plan', the research initiative of the German government 'Zukunftsfond Südeuropa' and a bilateral project of the Rectors' Conferences. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

The German public radio station 'Deutschlandradio': Rodothea Seralidou reports about the concequences of Greek reforms in the educational sector in September 2013 - layoffs, protests and suffering pupils. Available only in German [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Daphne Grathwohl from Deutsche Welle reports about status and development of the Greek educational system. She interviews an Athenian school rector and the präsident of the Greek teachers union OLME. Available in German only. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

The German speaking newspaper "Griechenland Zeitung" publishes news about Greece. It is published in print and online (as PDF) every week since 14th of Oktober 2005.
The section 'Bildung' (Education) gives an insight in latest and past events in Greece. Some articles are only accessible when you subscribe to the journal. [Abstract: [...]

The link leads you to a list of articles published by the website "University World News" about higher education in Greece from 2007 to 2015. "University World News" is run by the British company Higher Education Web Publishing Ltd based in London. The articles are written and gathered by a network of internationally operating [...]

Greek Reporter is an international news portal run by Greek reporters and journalists, covering Greek and international news. The following link leads you to articles that have been tagged with the keyword "education" in Greece. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Results from the database "Zeitungsdokumentation Bildungswesen" (Newspaper Documentation Education). The database provides bibliographical information on more than 30 daily and weekly newspapers and information services, mostly in German. The articles can be ordered online. You will get a paper copy. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]


With that extract from her dissertation in 2006, Kyrini Fotopoulou shows which major points have to be discussed when thinking about inclusion in a Greek context. She is not just analysing the term 'inclusion' itself but gives an insight in the legal framework, educational policy and reality. Furthermore, she makes proposals for reform [...]

Some current publications since April 2014:

"This study focuses on the contribution of Emmanuel Lambadarios to special education in Greece in the early twentieth century. It examines Lambadarios's involvement in special education, culminating in the establishment of the 'Model Special School of Athens' (PESA), the first public special education school for children with intellectual disabilities. It specifically explores [...]

"This paper focuses on Greek regular and special preschool teachers' understanding of inclusion; their views about the engagement of children with disabilities in typical day routines/activities; and their preferred strategies for facilitating children's engagement in classroom activities. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews with 77 teachers (45 regular and [...]

Results from a search through several databases on the German Education Portal.

This webdossier was compiled by our Greece enthousiast Anne Mönch.
Last Update: 26.05.2020  -

News on Education in Greece

  1. University World News: Greece
  1. Education for a bright future in Greece.
  1. Recent publication 2015: “(...) transition of higher education in Greece (1974-1982)“
  1. Greece: Universities lose access to digital journals (10.07.15)
  2. Studying in Greece: DAAD Says Crisis Can Be An Opprtunity [courtesy translation]
  1. Tsipras et al are theorising a Greek tragedy (30.06.15)
  1. The influence of the school hygiene and paedology movement on the early development of special education in Greece, 1900-1940.
    The leading role of Emmanuel Lambadarios.
  2. Greek Universities: Better Studies through Cooperation [courtesy translation]
  1. New `Government of hope` is sprinkled with academics (29.01.15)
  1. Election offers universities new hope (23.01.15)
    1. Unrest throws students` plans into chaos (18.07.14)
    1. The Best Universities in Greece and around the World (09.07.14)
    1. 90 Greek Genius Students Plan the Country’s Future (08.07.14)
    1. Spurious row over university redundancies (04.07.14)


      1. Greek government-debt crisis


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