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Websites on digitisation & inclusion worldwide sorted by source type

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This page provides you with links to internet resources on the subject of "Digitisation, digital education and inclusion from an international perspective". The focus is on the inclusion of people with disabilities.

The links are sorted by source type. If you prefer sorting by subject, you can also browse through the same sources sorted by topic. The introductory page to this web dossier is superordinate to this page.

Guidelines, Laws, Policies

The trend towards a digital society provides users with new ways of accessing information and services. The providers of information and services, such as public sector bodies, rely increasingly on the internet in order to produce, collect and provide a wide range of information and services online which are essential to the public. In the context of this Directive, [...]

The European accessibility act is a directive that aims to improve the functioning of the internal market for accessible products and services, by removing barriers created by divergent rules in Member States. The European accessibility act covers products and services that have been identified as being most important for persons with disabilities while being most likely to [...]

"Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG) 2.1 covers a wide range of recommendations for making Web content more accessible. Following these guidelines will make content more accessible to a wider range of people with disabilities (...) Following these guidelines will also often make Web content more usable to users in [...]

The author of the blog compiles information on Web Accessibility laws and policies in more than 20 countries worldwide. For each country you will find information on the respective discrimination law/policy (because of disability) and on laws/policies concerning communication etc. The name of the law is mentioned and the author [...]

"(...) vast inequalities still exist in levels of internet access, digital skills and patterns of use – particularly for girls from disadvantaged communities. To rectify these inequities, a holistic approach to digital policies is essential. Using the UNICEF Child-centred Digital Equality Framework, A Global Review of Selected Digital Inclusion Policies reviewed 126 [...]

Reports, Literature Analyses, Statistics, Overviews

Covers of literature on digital education and inclusion
Copyright: the respective authors and editors of the literature; covers compiled by N. Cohen / DBS
No time specification

The "Digital Accessibility Rights Evaluation Index" (DARE Index) is published by the The Global Initiative for Inclusive ICTs ( G3ict). The website linked here provides a lot of resources and background information on the index. Among others, you will find the index and its predecessor published since 2008, country profiles, top [...]

A short comparison of the concepts of Universal Design, Design for All, and Inclusive Design. The textprovides further links to the Design for All Foundation, to a Universal Design Handbook, an an Inclusive Design Research Centre. The text is part of the "Inclusive Design Toolkit" of the University of Cambridge. [Abstract: [...]


"In this 2022 report, the UN Special Rapporteur on the right to education addresses the risks and opportunities of the digitalization of education for the right to education. She calls for discussions relating to the introduction of digital technologies in education to be framed around the right of every person to public, free, quality education and the commitments of States [...]

"The Global Report on Assistive Technology presents a comprehensive dataset and analysis of current assistive technology access, drawing the attention of governments and civil society to the need for, and benefit of, assistive technology, including its return on investment. The Global Report sets out ten recommendations for [...]


"The overall aim of the study (published 2021) was to assess the actual and potential role of digital technologies in promoting access, quality and equity in compulsory school education across the EU27, and in complementing and enhancing traditional forms of teaching and learning. The study was concerned with how digital technologies can promote the inclusion of all learners, [...]

"This policy brief (2021) is part of the Global Programme Supporting Disability Inclusive COVID-19 Response and Recovery at National Level, funded by the United Nations Partnership on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (UNPRPD). Proceeding from the review and analysis of the Programme-related research findings, the document presents recommendations to support relevant [...]

Quality Matters (QM) is an international network of more thn 1500 organisations in more than 25 countries worldwide. It deals with questions of quality control and management of digital educational resources. We link to a White Paper Series first published by QM in 2020 on digital accessibility and inclusion. The series shares [...]


The following annotated bibliography was produced in the context of the French project Access-man. It presents literature that deals with the accessibility of textbooks for visually impaired persons. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide].


"The question of the convergences between inclusive and digital education is a topic that deserves to be published in a special issue: Where do we stand 25 years after the Salamanca Declaration (Unesco, 1994)? Can we think differently about inclusive education with new technologies? Which changes do we observe in inclusive practices with digital technologies? What developments [...]


Assistive technologies (ATs) are designed to improve the functional capabilities of people with disabilities. Some are relatively low-tech and very familiar, such as such as reading glasses, crutches and hearing aids. Others are more advanced, using cutting-edge science and technology, with future ATs under development that could have a huge impact on all our lives. The focus [...]


The term "assistive technologies" refers to the equipment, devices and apparatus, and the services, systems, processes and adaptations made to the environment that support and facilitate their functions, used by persons with special education needs. This study is a literature review of the use of assistive technologies in the education of students with special educational [...]


This preface of this book provides a good overview over the history and the use of the term "Universal Design". The term is also compared to similar terms like "Design for All", "Inclusive Design", "Assistive Technology" or "Accessible Design". The publication is based on the conference proceedings of the "3rd International Conference on Universal Design (UD 2016)". [...]

Unfortunately, the following article is subject to a fee / licence

"Accessibility and equal opportunities for all in the digital age have become increasingly important over the last decade. In one form or another, the concept of accessibility is being considered to a greater or smaller extent in most projects that develop interactive systems. However, the concept varies among different professions, cultures and interest groups. Design for [...]


Most research on media use by young people with disabilities focuses on the therapeutic and rehabilitative uses of technology; less attention has been paid to their day-to-day encounters with media and technology--the mundane, sometimes pleasurable and sometimes frustrating experiences of "hanging out, messing around, and geeking out." In this report, Meryl Alper attempts to [...]

This article is in German only. But for English readers, the list of different concepts of Universal Design in Pedagogy (p. 9) can be interesting too, as the designs themselves have English names and a reference to literature is given. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]


This Report builds on five regional reports commissioned by UNESCO to look at the use of ICTs to access information and knowledge by people with disabilities (PWD). One of the main questions of the report is how current and emerging technologies can be made more accessible, affordable and relevant for particular target groups. It is based on the United Nations Convention on [...]

A short overview over the concepts of Universal Design compared to the Design for All, including further links. The text is only available in German. You can find an English article here (access is subject to [...]


"This report describes a review of literature on assistive learning technologies, or digital technologies designed to support learners with special needs in education. The intention was for the review to take a broad and interdisciplinary approach to the topic, with the aim of building up a picture of the state of research in the field, as well as highlighting areas where the [...]


"The Review presents examples of practice of the use of information and communication technologies for people with disabilities in different educational contexts and settings worldwide, including Europe, Asia, Latin America, CIS and Baltic States. The goal of the Review is to highlight key messages and recommendations for policy and practice in this area." [Abstract: Editor's [...]


This issue brief discusses the barriers to technological access for students with disabilities. Challenges for bridging the digital divide are discussed and the following recommendations are provided: (1) stakeholders should have access to training so they can design and select accessible facilities, utilize computers and software, purchase appropriate assistive technology, [...]

Organisations, (Research) Institutes

This is the page of the UNESCO Institute for Information Technologies in Education (IITE) on digital education and new technologies in relation to disability and inclusion. The page provide an introduction to IITE's aims and activities regarding the topic. Furthermore, it links to a theme page on [...]

Theme page of the World Health Organisation on assistive technologies with a lot of news and information on projects, events, pubications and more. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

The International Society for Augmentative and Alternative Communication (ISAAC) was founded in 1983. It aims at improving the lives of children and adults with complex communication needs.

ISAAC’s goal is to create worldwide awareness about how AAC can support individuals without speech. ISAAC accomplishes this by [...]

France; Francophone Countries; international
The "Observatory for Adapted Digital Resources" (Orna) was created in November 2007 by the Digital Education Department of the French Ministry of National Education. The "National Institute for Training and Research for the Education of Young People with Disabilities and for Appropriate Teaching" [...]

G3ict develops policies, standards and technical resources for inclusive ICTs together with United Nations agencies. It engages in institutional advocacy, provides training and certification and organises an annual summit. You will find a lot of information on these tasks on their website. Furthermore, you will find an Open [...]

GAATES deals with both digital inclusion and accessibility in (analogue) public spaces and built environments. The website provides information on projects and resources created by GAATES, such as various guides for creating inclusive digital tools, websites, etc. In addition, GAATES offers global news on inclusion and [...]

"The mission of the International Association of Accessibility Professionals (IAAP), (...), is to define, promote, improve, and diversify the accessibility profession globally through certification, education, and networking in order to enable the creation of accessible products, content, services, and environments." The website [...]

Accessibility is one of the Areas of Action of the "Telecommunication Standardization Sector" of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). ITU is "a specialized agency of the United Nations responsible for all matters related to information and communication technologies". DCAD's aim is to "ensure that ICT accessibility is [...]

France; Francophone Countries; international
The research chair "Disability, Education and Digital Technologyl" is a project by the "research group on Disability, Accessibility, Educational and School Practices" (Grhapes). Grhapes, for its part, is the research unit of the French "National Institute for Training and Research for the Education [...]

GDI Hub is a research and practice centre for disability innovation. It focusses on the following themes: * Assistive & Accessible Technology
* Inclusive Design
* Culture and Participation
* Climate & Crisis Resilience
* Inclusive Educational Technology
The website offers a wide range of news, [...]


Second Life Avatars with wheelchairs, guide dogs or white sticks gather around lecture announcements in Virtual Reality.
Copyright: Ellie Brewster, "VWBPE" (Virtual Worlds Best Practices in Education), cropped by N. Cohen/DBS CC BY-NC 2.0

A screenshot of the virtual Second Life world "Minerva Island", which the Department of Women's Studies at Ohio State University has used since 2008 for lectures, seminars and the like. The screenshot is from a workshop on how to use a guide dog in Second Life. The teacher of the workshop presents another screenshot with the caption: "Note that many residents in Second Life prefer avatars that reflect their real-life identities. Many people with disabilities use wheelchairs."

international; Germany; Austria; Switzerland; Canada; United States
"Contemporary digital media practices developed and employed by people with disabilities is an important and growing research field, which unfortunately has been neglected by German Media Studies. (...) The proposed scientific network will address these urgent topics and map [...]

"The project aims to develop specialized digital accessibility training and accessible e-learning platform to improve the knowledge, skills, and competencies of diverse groups of key stakeholders. The training follows web accessibility standards and enables website developers, designers, managers, and others to respond to the needs of [...]

United Kingdom
The Imperial College London's project is first of all meant to help making the College's own websites more accessible according to a UK regulation as of 2018 on accessibility within public sector bodies. Nonetheless, the tips and guides compiled by the College can also help others in making their websites more accessible and [...]

international; United Kingdom
"Digital technologies have transformed daily life. Yet capacity for producing accessible digital tools and services has not kept pace with demand, exacerbating digital exclusion for disabled people and older people.

Europe; Netherlands; Germany; Croatia; United Kingdom
The aim of the project is to co-create, implement and share innovative pedagogies and aligned assessment for relevant and inclusive digital education in order to deal with the COVID-19 induced and similar crises and to support meaningful digital transformation of Higher Education. The [...]

Europe; international
This project ist funded by the European Commission through the Erasmus+ programme from March 2021 to February 2023. It aims at analysing inclusion in the context of digital (higher) education. The project plans to publish a Handbook for Inclusive Digital Education, create Micro-Learning Modules on Inclusion in Digital [...]

Europe; international
This project was funded by the European Commission through the Erasmus+ programme from July 2020 to December 2021. The main aim of the project was to carry out a training course "to empower youth workers' digital competences and equip them with information and tools which will improve their work with young people through [...]

Europe; international
The project ran from September 2016 to August 2019 and dealt with digital education and inclusion in the field of adult education and training. It was funded within the framework of the Erasmus+-programme of the European Commission. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Programmes, Apps, Tools

A person is sitting in front of a computer monitor with high contrast font and display, like the ones that are used by visually impaired persons.
A person is sitting in front of a computer monitor with high contrast font and display, like the ones that are used by visually impaired persons.

The World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) provides a list of tools that help evaluate Web accessibility. As there are different definitions of accessibility in different countries, you can filter country specific accessibility guidelines, among others. W3C was created in 1994 as a membership organisation that seeks to standardise [...]

The EU project "Digital Accessibility" provides six different quizzes that deal with accessible digital platforms and tools. The quizzes address different stakeholders that create, develop, design, implement or evaluate digital content. One more quiz addresses interested people in general and tests basic knowledge about digital [...]

Last Update: 31.10.2023  -

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