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Ariadne Pfad:


Inclusion in an International Perspective: Introduction

A CD-ROM box with the inscription 'So what is inclusion?'
Launch of the cd-rom “So what is inclusion?“ at the Crucible Centre for Human Rights & Social Justice, Roehampton University, London, England (2007).
Copyright: John Paul Edward Kelly alias rockinpaddy, CC BY-NC-ND 2.0

On approaching the term "inclusion" from an international perspective, the diversity of groups that are meant to be included soon emerges. In Germany, the inclusion of people with disabilities into mainstream education is focused while in other countries, social, economic or cultural inclusion is highlighted in the context of different groups of individuals that are typically regarded as being excluded from education. Different dimensions of inclusion (societal scope / excluded groups) are evident in the following statement
"In the past few decades "disability" has climbed the academic ladder. Just as race, class and gender itnow is being considered an advantageous instrument for critically exploring a wide range of societal issues." (as found in the introduction on a website on "Disability History Lecture Series" at the Catholic University of Leuven in Belgium). Likewise, the discourse on inclusion occasionally reflects problems that are specific to individual countries or regions.
Similar to "disability", the term "inclusion" is experiencing a period of interest in academia - which is easily discernible from the number of publications on the topic.

Bar graph of the publications found on the German Education Portal for the keyword 'inclusion' (as of 31.05.17)
Publications found on the German Education Portal for the keyword “inclusion“ (as of 26.03.2020). Show numbers and literature links for the graph (accessible text file).
Copyright: N. Cohen CC BY-NC-SA 4.0

To narrow down the scope of our dossier, we focussed on inclusion in the field of disability. Nevertheless, the boundaries between different definitions of inclusion are fluid. Especially international organisations like the UN or UNESCO stand for a rather broad definition of inclusion in all spheres of society and for all groups of persons.

The webdossier is ordered by continents. So far, it provides information on international and European, North, Central and South American as well as African issues. Asia and Oceania will be added gradually. The chapters for each continent are then sorted by type of resource (websites of organisations, networks, policy documents, reports, journals, conferences, ...).

Additionally, we provide information on inclusion in some individual countries.

Progressively, we will also present various educational topics with regard to inclusion. First, we addressed the topic of "Digitisation, digital education and inclusion" from an international perspective.

Last Update: 13.02.2024  -

Inclusion News

  1. "Promoting diversity and inclusion in schools in Europe" (Eurydice Comparative Report 10/23)
  2. A global review of selected digital inclusion policies.
    Key findings and policy requirements for greater digital equality of children.
  3. Launch of the RCCS Inter-Country Exchange on Inclusive Education (July 2023)
  4. Unesco GEM Report 2023 "Technology in education" - Chapter 3 "Equity and inclusion: Access to content"
  5. Unesco GEM Report 2023 "Technology in education" - Chapter 2 "Equity and inclusion: Access for disadvantaged groups"
  6. Inklusion – Anerkennung – Gerechtigkeit
  7. Equity and Inclusion in Education.
    Finding Strength through Diversity.
  8. "Higher Education diversity strategies for migrant and refugee inclusion" - The uni(di)versity atlas of inclusion (2021)
  9. Digitisation, Digital Education & Inclusion in an International Perspective
  10. inclusive teaching material (itm)
  11. "World Report on Disability: 10 years on" - discussion (15.06.21)

Cover of the International Handbook of Inclusive Education + additional information

The International Handbook of Inclusive Education has been published in January 2021. It is available online and free of charge.

  1. Emerging from COVID-19 pandemic: A social inclusion approach to educating learners with disabilities (World Education Blog 19.10.2020)
  2. How are countries addressing the Covid-19 challenges in education? A snapshot of policy measures (World Education Blog 24.03.2020)
  3. New webdossier: Inclusion in South America
  4. "Artificial Intelligence and Inclusive Education" (2019) - Introduction & 1. Chapter
  5. The Coronavirus gets explained in easy language
  6. How is the coronavirus affecting learners with disabilities? (World Education Blog 30.03.20)
  7. How are countries addressing the Covid-19 challenges in education? A snapshot of policy measures (World Education Blog 24.03.2020)
  8. Results of the Ninth Consultation of Member States on the implementation of the UNESCO Convention and Recommendation against Discrimination in Education (2018)
  9. 10 messages and 10 recommendations on disability and education
  10. Learn, Inspire, Lead: 17th Inclusion International World Congress 2018
  11. ECER 2018: Inclusion and Exclusion. Resources for Educational Research?
  12. ÖFEB Kongress 2022 "Bildungsforschung in und für Zeiten der Veränderung"
  13. Inclusive Early Childhood Education: An Analysis of 32 European Examples.
  14. Inclusive Education: Global Diffusion and Local Translations. (Themenheft).
  15. Creating a culture of inclusion in higher education (University World News 04.11.16)
  16. 3ème Biennale du LISIS
  17. Inklusive europäische Bildung. (Themenheft).
  18. World Congress on Special Needs Education (WCSNE-2016)
  19. Inklusion im internationalen Kontext. (Themenheft).
  20. Building a School for All : 4th training course on inclusive education
  21. Blickwechsel | Diversity - Internationale Perspektiven der LehrerInnenbildung
  22. Tagung ´Bildungs- und Erziehungsorganisationen im Spannungsfeld von Inklusion und Ökonomisierung´
  23. UN Committee on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities to review Germany, Croatia, Czech Republic, Turkmenistan, Dominican Republic, Mongolia, Cook Islands (spring 2015)
  24. Sixth Annual GCES Symposium: Inclusion Not Exclusion: Comparative Educational Perspectives at the Heart of Sustainable Development
  1. Zero Project - Tag Education (Zero Barriers)
  1. Inclusion scolaire : recherche et développement dans la francophonie et l’Europe latine - 2e Biennale du LISIS
  1. The German National Report on Education 2014 has a focus on disability. English information will be available soon.

Take a look at Germany

  1. Special Needs and Inclusive Education in Germany

Further International Dossiers

  1. Inclusive education (date: May 2010)


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