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Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Education - international perspectives

A robot holds something like a book in its hands and reads

Ever since the release of the chatbot "ChatGPT" in November 2022, Artificial Intelligence (AI) has also reached the general public. This chatbot has triggered a global discourse on artificial intelligence. It oscillates between great euphoria about the potential use of AI and dark future scenarios concerning the possible risks of AI. The use of AI is also the subject of controversial debate in the education sector. On the one hand, for example, great opportunities are seen with regard to a more personalised learning environment tailored to the individual learner. On the other hand, there are concerns about issues such as data protection or ethical aspects of the use of AI in education.

Our web dossier offers the most important websites and sources on the topic of Artificial Intelligence in education. We usually provide resources that are freely accessible and free of charge, as far as possible.

And for all those who are short of time, please find our TOP 5 resources at the beginning of the dossier!



Overviews (books & articles) & Systematic Reviews

Overviews sorted chronologically
latest publications first
2023
Not freely accessible

international
The following books were published in the book series on "Bridging Human and Machine: Future Education with Intelligence" so far (the books are not Open Access):

* Emerging Technologies and Pedagogies in the Curriculum (2020)
* An Introduction to Artificial Intelligence in Education (2021)
* Innovative [...]

2022

With the increasing use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in education, the number of published studies in the field has increased. However, no large-scale reviews have been conducted to comprehensively investigate the various aspects of this field. Based on 4,519 publications from 2000 to 2019, we attempt to fill this gap and identify trends and topics related to [...]

Background: In fact, most schools around the world are not well equipped to have discussions and keep current on the expansion of artificial intelligence (AI) in many aspects of society and economy. They either ignore this conversation, or simply criticize technology, but these resistances are not stopping wide spread of various types of AI projects in schools, mainly driven [...]

2021

How might digital technology and notably smart technologies based on artificial intelligence (AI), learning analytics, robotics, and others transform education? This book explores such question. It focuses on how smart technologies currently change education in the classroom and the management of educational organisations and systems. The book delves into beneficial uses of [...]

"(...) this article reports a comprehensive review of selected empirical studies on artificial intelligence in education (AIEd) published in 1993-2020, as collected in the Web of Sciences database and selected AIEd-specialized journals. A total of 40 empirical studies met all selection criteria, and were fully reviewed using multiple methods, including selected bibliometrics, [...]

The current stage of society development is very closely related to the digitalization of all spheres of public life without exception. Education in this regard should become the starting point or the basis for the competent and conscious application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies, neural networks, and other cyber-physical systems based on AI, as well as robots [...]

The aim of this study is to examine the studies in the literature on the use of artificial intelligence in education in terms of its bibliometric properties. The Web of Science (WoS) database was used to collect the data. Various keywords were used to search the literature, and a total of 2,686 publications on the subject published between 2001-2021 were found. The inquiry [...]

In this study, we review 1830 research articles on artificial intelligence in education (AIED), with the aim of providing a holistic picture of the knowledge evolution in this interdisciplinary research field from 2010 to 2019. A novel three-step approach in the analysis of the keyword co-occurrence networks (KCN) is proposed to identify the knowledge structure, knowledge [...]

Not freely accessible

To accompany the special issue in Artificial Intelligence and Education, this article presents a short history of research in the field and summarises emerging challenges. We highlight key paradigm shifts that are becoming possible but also the need to pay attention to theory, implementation and pedagogy while adhering to ethical principles. We conclude by drawing attention to [...]

2020

This study aims at presenting a multi-perspectives study on Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIEd) by analysing relevant funds, conferences, journals, software, institutions, and scholars in the field of AIEd. Accordingly, there are six research questions that the authors try to answer with this study: RQ1) What was the trend of grants in relation to AIEd?; RQ2) What were [...]

This paper was written to support the G20 artificial intelligence (AI) dialogue. With the rise of artificial intelligence (AI), education faces two challenges: reaping the benefits of AI to improve education processes, both in the classroom and at the system level; and preparing students for new skillsets for increasingly automated economies and societies. AI applications are [...]

2019

"Artificial Intelligence is a booming technological domain capable of altering every aspect of our social interactions. In education, AI has begun producing new teaching and learning solutions that are now undergoing testing in different contexts. This working paper, written for education policymakers, anticipates the extent to which AI affects the education sector to allow [...]

Systematic Reviews

"This study aimed to identify the present status of K-12 machine learning education through a systematic literature review between 2011 and 2021. Data were collected from four reputable databases. (...) Most of the articles published in this field were produced between 2020 and 2021, and more conference proceeding papers were published than journals in this field. (...) the [...]

"There is an emerging interest in Artificial Intelligence (AI) teaching and learning in the K-12 setting. While some work has explored the educational content and resources used for this purpose, there is limited empirical evidence on the effectiveness of such AI education interventions. The primary objective of the systematic literature review presented in this paper was to [...]

"The increasing attention to Machine Learning (ML) in K-12 levels and studies exploring a different aspect of research on K-12 ML has necessitated the need to synthesize this existing research. This study systematically reviewed how research on ML teaching and learning in K-12 has fared, including the current area of focus, and the gaps that need to be addressed in the [...]

"Applications of artificial intelligence in education (AIEd) are emerging and are new to researchers and practitioners alike. Reviews of the relevant literature have not examined how AI technologies have been integrated into each of the four key educational domains of learning, teaching, assessment, and administration. The relationships between the technologies and learning [...]

"In this paper, we try to understand the full benefits of AI chatbots in education, their opportunities, challenges, potential limitations, concerns, and prospects of using AI chatbots in educational settings. We conducted an extensive search across various academic databases, and after applying specific predefined criteria, we selected a final set of 67 relevant studies for [...]

With the increasing use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) technologies in education, the number of published studies in the field has increased. However, no large-scale reviews have been conducted to comprehensively investigate the various aspects of this field. Based on 4,519 publications from 2000 to 2019, we attempt to fill this gap and identify trends and topics related to [...]

Artificial Intelligence in Different Education Sectors

With the increase in studies about artificial intelligence (AI) in the educational field, many scholars in the field believe that the role of teachers, school and leaders in education will change. In this regard, the purpose of this study is to examine what possible scenarios are there with the arrival of AI in education and what kind of implications it can reveal for future [...]

"This systematic review provides unique findings with an up-to-date examination of artificial intelligence (AI) in higher education (HE) from 2016 to 2022. Using PRISMA principles and protocol, 138 articles were identified for a full examination. Using a priori, and grounded coding, the data from the 138 articles were extracted, analyzed, and coded. The findings of this study [...]

"According to various international reports, Artificial Intelligence in Education (AIEd) is one of the currently emerging fields in educational technology. Whilst it has been around for about 30 years, it is still unclear for educators how to make pedagogical advantage of it on a broader scale, and how it can actually impact meaningfully on teaching and learning in higher [...]

"Artificial intelligence (AI) tools are increasingly being used in the field of early childhood education (ECE) to enhance learning and development among young children. (...) We conducted this scoping review to evaluate, synthesize and display the latest literature on AI in ECE. This review analyzed 17 eligible studies conducted in different countries from 1995 to 2021. [...]

"Since artificial intelligence (AI) is finding its way into more and more areas of everyday life, improving the AI skills of non-experts is important and will become even more relevant in the future. While it is necessary that children learn about the possibilities of AI at an early age, adults in higher education and beyond should also have at least a basic understanding of [...]

Not freely accessible

"The use of artificial intelligence has played an important role in science teaching and learning. The purpose of this study was to fill a gap in the current review of research on AI in science education (AISE) in the early stage of education by systematically reviewing existing research in this area. (...). This review study employed a bibliometric analysis and content [...]

As online learning has been widely adopted in higher education in recent years, artificial intelligence (AI) has brought new ways for improving instruction and learning in online higher education. However, there is a lack of literature reviews that focuses on the functions, effects, and implications of applying AI in the online higher education context. In addition, what AI [...]

Journals

international
We link to the results for a search for Artificial Intelligence & Education in the German Electronic Journals' Library (EZB) [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]


Reports & Statistics

"The current report is an exhaustive account of the discussion and debate at the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education (hereafter referred to as 'the conference') held in Beijing from 16 to 18 May 2019. Under the overarching theme of 'Planning Education in the AI Era: Lead the Leap', the conference was structured into seven plenary sessions and 16 [...]

international
"The EDUCAUSE Horizon Report profiles key trends and emerging technologies and practices shaping the future of higher education, and envisions a number of scenarios and implications for that future." The Horizon Reports have been published by the non-profit organisation EDUCAUSE since 2005. This page offers a list of all reports [...]

"This report features key findings and recommendations of UNESCO's global survey on AI curricula for K-12. It reveals that only 11 countries have developed and endorsed K-12 AI curricula and another four countries have AI curricula in development. This is a strong call for Member States to develop AI curricula for K-12 students, and to build stronger mechanisms to validate [...]

"The executive summary of the final report of the Commission Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence and Data in Education and Training functions as a supportive document for the ethical guidelines. The report presents the efforts of the Expert Group on Artificial intelligence (AI) and Data in Education and Training, to inform the Commission on the current interplay among AI, [...]

international
We link to three publications by Unesco on Artificial Intelligence (AI) in education and inclusion:

1) Artificial intelligence in education, compendium of promising initiatives: Mobile Learning Week 2019
2) Artificial intelligence for Sustainable Development: synthesis report, Mobile Learning Week 2019 [...]


Organisations & Networks

international
The IAIED is an interdisciplinary association that brings together the fields of computer science, education and psychology. It promotes research and development of interactive and adaptive learning environments. Among other things, IAIED organises an annual conference and publishes the International Journal of AI in Education [...]

international
This thematic site, which specialises in artificial intelligence and inclusion, is operated by the Berkman Klein Center for Internet & Society at Harvard University (USA). With the help of various partners around the world, it compiles information and resources on AI and Inclusion. For a start, you will find resources that were [...]

international
The "International Alliance to Advance Learning in the Digital Era (IAALDE)" is network of several societies worldwide in the field of information technology and education. The platform primarily offers information about the goals of the alliance, its member societies as well as an event calendar with conference announcements and [...]

international
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), one of the leading universities in the technological field, offers an overview of its research and projects in the field of artificial intelligence and education with the initiative "Responsible AI for Social Empowerment and Education (RAISE)". The overarching themes are: [...]

international
This Unesco page is an overview on the topic of education and artificial intelligence, with a particular focus on the importance and influence of AI on the Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) proclaimed by the United Nations. The overview offers links to UNESCO publications on the topic, to international conferences, to political [...]

international
The non-profit association Educause aims at advancing higher education through the use of information technology. Educause compiles information on the topic of artificial intelligence in higher education on the page we link to. Mostly these are their own articles, publications, reports, etc.; in some cases there are also links to [...]


Guidelines, Policies, Frameworks

"The Beijing consensus on artificial intelligence and education is the outcome document of the International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Education, "Planning education in the AI era: Lead the leap", that took place in May 2021. The document is part of the existing frameworks on AI and education developed within UNESCO's role in steering the global dialogue with [...]

"For this review, UNICEF analysed 20 national AI strategies, and found that most make only a cursory mention of children and their specific needs. Evaluating four key child-centred categories, one strategy was found to have no meaningful mention of children, while barely a handful registered more than 1,000 words on the key issues of improving quality of life and services for [...]

"This report features key findings and recommendations of UNESCO's global survey on AI curricula for K-12. It reveals that only 11 countries have developed and endorsed K-12 AI curricula and another four countries have AI curricula in development. This is a strong call for Member States to develop AI curricula for K-12 students, and to build stronger mechanisms to validate [...]

"Artificial Intelligence (AI) has the potential to address some of the biggest challenges in education today, innovate teaching and learning practices, and ultimately accelerate the progress towards SDG 4. However, these rapid technological developments inevitably bring multiple risks and challenges, which have so far outpaced policy debates and regulatory frameworks. This [...]

international
Unicef provides recommendations for building AI policies and systems that uphold child rights in different languages. You will also find an AI guide for parents and one for teens - also in different languages. Furthermore, Unicef shows how to operationalise the policy recommendations with the help of 8 case studies.
This [...]

international; Europe
Facilitate - AI is an EU project that aims to support teachers and learners in grades 7-12 in dealing with artificial intelligence. This is to be achieved primarily through the following three project results:

* Result 1: [...]

"This paper [published in 2000] explores the human and ethical issues implicit in the use of AI in education. Our intention is to begin a discussion that will lead to a deeper understanding of the issues and eventually to a consensus within the research community concerning what is desirable and what is not in the use of AI in education." [Abstract: Authors' information].

"These ethical guidelines on AI and data usage in teaching and learning are designed to help educators understand the potential that the applications of AI and data usage can have in education and to raise awareness of the possible risks so that they are able to engage positively, critically and ethically with AI systems and exploit their full potential." The guidelines are [...]

"The executive summary of the final report of the Commission Expert Group on Artificial Intelligence and Data in Education and Training functions as a supportive document for the ethical guidelines. The report presents the efforts of the Expert Group on Artificial intelligence (AI) and Data in Education and Training, to inform the Commission on the current interplay among AI, [...]

This research aims to 1) Develop a common framework for artificial intelligence in higher education (AAI-HE model) and 2) Assess the AAI-HE model. The research process is divided into two stages: 1) Develop an AAI-HE model, and 2) Assessment the model. The sample consists of five experts chosen through purposive sampling. The data is analyzed by means and standardized [...]

Europe
Abstract and poster for a talk given at the 16th annual International Technology, Education and Development Conference (INTED2022). The talk presents the European Union's view of artificial intelligence in connection with education. This perspective was developed on the basis of a literature and document analysis. Please note that we [...]


Projects

Africa South of the Sahara; Africa
Funded by Canada and Sweden, the 4-year program aims to support the development of responsible and inclusive AI systems by Africa and Africans. The site offers a wide range of information on supported projects, research, conferences, blog articles or podcasts. In the area of education & research you can find [...]

Europe
"The platform seek to act as a central access point to education resources in Europe related to Artificial Intelligence. It targets all levels of education, from basic AI literacy for all, to courses for university students, and to re-skilling of workers." The site currently offers an education catalogue with AI related training [...]

international
The UNESCO project on AI emerged from various recommendations, reports and international agreements on AI within the framework of UNESCO events. It has three strands of work:

* AI and the Future of Learning
* Guidance for Generative AI in education and research
* AI Competency Frameworks for Students and [...]

international
The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT), one of the leading universities in the technological field, offers an overview of its research and projects in the field of artificial intelligence and education with the initiative "Responsible AI for Social Empowerment and Education (RAISE)". The overarching themes are: [...]

international
Unicef offers information about a two-year project that aims to better understand how artificial intelligence (AI) systems can protect, support and strengthen children. The site offers links to other Unicef information and pages about AI and children, as well as a publication “Policy guidance on AI for children,” information [...]

international; Europe
Facilitate - AI is an EU project that aims to support teachers and learners in grades 7-12 in dealing with artificial intelligence. This is to be achieved primarily through the following three project results:

* Result 1: [...]


AI and education in different countries & regions

"This report features key findings and recommendations of UNESCO's global survey on AI curricula for K-12. It reveals that only 11 countries have developed and endorsed K-12 AI curricula and another four countries have AI curricula in development. This is a strong call for Member States to develop AI curricula for K-12 students, and to build stronger mechanisms to validate [...]

"This open access book tackles the pressing problem of integrating concerns related to Artificial Intelligence (AI) ethics into higher education curriculums aimed at future AI developers in Africa and beyond. For doing so, it analyzes the present and future states of AI ethics education in local computer science and engineering programs. The authors share relevant best [...]

"(...) UNESCO publishes the results of a survey intended to establish the priorities and capacity building needs of African countries concerning AI. The potential benefits and risks of the technology are not equally distributed across regions of the world. In 2019, as part of UNESCO's reflections on AI in Africa, [one publication] highlighted that there is a significant gap in [...]

"First, this paper reviews the work on the ethics of artificial intelligence in Africa by researchers from Africa and the diaspora in a concept marked by a majority occidental contribution. Many African and diaspora researchers have proposed solutions for the development of ethical and responsible AI in Africa, but the proposed solutions are difficult to implement without the [...]

Over the last decade, there has been great research interest in the application of artificial intelligence (AI) in various fields, such as medicine, finance, and law. Recently, there has been a research focus on the application of AI in education, where it has great potential. Therefore, a systematic review of the literature on AI in education is therefore necessary. This [...]

"This meta-review examined 14 research papers on AI curriculum for K-12 classrooms that were taken in the Asia-Pacific region from 2018 to 2021 by identifying the content knowledge, tools, platforms, activities, theories and models, assessment methods, and learning outcomes of the selected studies. The results indicated that AI curricula can develop students' AI knowledge and [...]

The use of Artificial Intelligence (AI) in developing new teaching-learning solutions is gaining momentum towards transforming the education system in India. Schools are beginning to shift from conventional methods of teaching to smart education to enhance students' learning experiences. Reviewing the literature on machine learning, personalized learning, and Bloom's taxonomy, [...]


AI tolls in education

international
Founded in 2022, the German "Virtual Competence Center: Artificial Intelligence and Scientific Work (VK:KIWA)" offers a list of AI resources to support academic reading and writing processes. Although the site itself is only available in German, the resources listed are often international. You can find AI resources [...]

"The introduction of Artificial Intelligence technology enables the integration of Chatbot systems into various aspects of education. This technology is increasingly being used for educational purposes. Chatbot technology has the potential to provide quick and personalised services to everyone in the sector, including institutional employees and students. This paper presents a [...]

Chatbots are a promising technology with the potential to enhance workplaces and everyday life. In terms of scalability and accessibility, they also offer unique possibilities as communication and information tools for digital learning. In this paper, we present a systematic literature review investigating the areas of education where chatbots have already been applied, [...]

"In this paper, we try to understand the full benefits of AI chatbots in education, their opportunities, challenges, potential limitations, concerns, and prospects of using AI chatbots in educational settings. We conducted an extensive search across various academic databases, and after applying specific predefined criteria, we selected a final set of 67 relevant studies for [...]

Last Update: 13.05.2024  -  bildungweltweit@dipf.de

News on AI in Education

  1. Keyword „Artificial Intelligence“ on University World News
  2. Keywords "ChatGPT" on University World News
*****************
  1. Prepare for AI Hackers (Harvard Magazine 03-04/24)
  2. AI report – By the European Digital Education Hub’s Squad on artificial intelligence in education.
  3. List of academic search engines that use Large Language models for generative answers (Updated to Oct 2023)
  4. Empowering Educators in the Age of AI: What Now? 1/3 (Education International 03.01.24)
  5. Notes on AI Research, Development, and Education Use / Policy Conversations (Team4Tech)
  6. AI in tertiary education: impacts for research and practice (AJET 39,5 (2023))
  7. Generative AI in the Australian education system: An open data set of stakeholder recommendations and emerging analysis from a public inquiry.
  8. "ChatGPT Can Get Off My Lawn" (Jenkins for the Martin Center 17.11.23)
  9. Maximizing the Potential of Artificial Intelligence in Higher Education (Burnet for Higher Education Digest 17.11.23)
  10. Can AI help close the education gap? Sal Khan thinks so (Bill Gates Blog 10.08.23)

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