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Education in China

A blackboard with Chinese script in a school. Above the board hangs the national flag of China.
Wuhan School for Migrant Children in China.
Copyright: Tricia Wang; cut by: N. Cohen, CC BY-NC-SA 2.0

China is generally regarded as one of the oldest civilised countries and a high culture. Hence it is little surprising that education has had a long-standing tradition in China. "Even during the Shang dynasty (ca. 1600-1046 BC), a system of education existed in China. Archeological findings, e.g. oracle bones, provide evidence for the existence of schools", Caroline Glöckner claims in her essay "Das Bildungswesen in China" (Glöckner 2013: 193, translated by G. Schulte). At least since the Han period (206 BC - 220 AC.) Confucianism played an important role in China. Another well-known historical event that is connected to the education system in China concerns the Cultural Revolution initiated by Mao Zedong (1966 -1976): "Mao believed that education was...

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If you wish to seek a more in-depth and scientific approach to the history and current state of education in China, you might find the essay "Das Bildungswesen in China" (2013) by Caroline Glöckner interesting. The publisher has kindly granted us permission to publish this document online.

Our web dossier provides information on the following aspects of education in China:


General Information on Education

China
The website, which is provided by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), provides a broad overview over research and education in China, including information on statistics, educational reports, policy or cooperation with Germany and other countries. Additionally, you will find basic country data. [Abstract: [...]

China
The website LIPortal (Country Information Portal) is provided by the German Society for International Cooperation (GIZ). Under the category "society and culture" (Gesellschaft und Kultur) you will find a short overview over the Chinese educational system including a few links. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

China
The country dossier for China, compiled by the International Bureau of Education of the Unesco (IBE), provides information on statistics (from the World Data on Education - WDE), national education reports, education plans and policies, a bibliography (partly with fulltexts) and links to other sources. [Abstract: Editors of Education [...]

China; Germany
The website of the German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) provides ample information on academic exchange and cooperation with China: information on figures and facts of the Chinese education market, on scholarships (for Germans who want to go to China and the other way round), on project aids and cooperation in higher [...]

China
In the section ´´travel and safety information´´, the Federal Foreign Office of Germany provides basic information on different countries, amongst others on their education systems. This text about China provides a brief introduction to the current developments in education in China. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Im folgenden Beitrag wird Bildung in China mit dem Schwerpunkt Volksrepublik China (VR China) unter den Aspekten der Bildungsgeschichte, der Bildungsadministration, der Bildungsplanung, der Struktur des Bildungssystems, des privaten Bildungssektors und der Erwachsenenbildung abgehandelt. Zu einem besseren Verständnis werden zunächst einige Angaben zur Geschichte Chinas [...]


Educational Policy (Ministries, Authorities & further National Bodies)

China
The website of the Chinese Ministry for Education informs on its own structure and departments as well as on Chinese educational policy (incl. legal texts) or international agreements in the educational sector. Furthermore, you will find educational statistics (they have to be viewed via the Chinese sight, but there is an English [...]

China
The database Planipolis provides official fulltext documents on educational policy and planning from UNESCO member states. For China you can find documents starting in the year 1995. Planipolis is provided by the UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP). [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]


Educational Reports, Statistics, Assessments

A signboard on a building that says in Chinese and English: 'Compulsory Education for all kids improves the cultural quality of the whole Nation'
A signboard on a (school?) building in Yangshuo county, China: "Compulsory Education for all kids improves the cultural quality of the whole Nation"
Copyright: felibrilu, Education sign, cut by: N. Cohen CC BY-NC 2.0

China
The Chinese Ministry of Education provides educational statistics for different educational sectors starting from 1997. The labelling of the categories is in Chinese, but the single documents with the content have an English translation.

China
The Unesco Institute for Statistics (UIS) provides the most recent basic data on education in China. You will find information on the following issues: * General information * Education System * Participation in education * Progression and completion in education * Education expenditures * Illiterate [...]

China
This website of the Shanghai Academy of Educational Sciences is dedicated to the PISA study in China. You will find a lot of information on PISA studies procedure and results in China, including summary reports and other online publications on the topic. The website is available in Chinese only. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

China
The website of the HKPISA Centre, run by the Hong Kong Institute of Educational Research, provides information on the PISA studies in Hong Kong, which are conducted seperately from the PISA studies in the People's Republic of China. Among others, you will find a newsletter (only in Chinese) and Research Output / Publications (some of [...]

China
The China Education and Research Network provides some basic statistical data and a short report on "2000' Educational Evolution in China" on its English website. The statistics partly comprise different time spans, like 1985-1998, 1952-1998 or 1978-2002. Among others, you will find statistics on number of enrollments, graduates, [...]

China
This interactive website is provided by the OECD. It can be used to compare China's educational statistics with that of the average OECD results or with the results of other countries. For other countries, it is also possible to compare results from different international educational assessments (PISA,TALIS, PIAAC, ...). These options [...]

China
"A video series [including a written report] profiling policies and practices of education systems that demonstrate high or improving performance in the PISA tests." An additional report compares the People's Republic of China to the Special Administrative Region of Hong Kong. "This series of videos has been produced jointly by [...]

"Across OECD countries, governments are having to work with shrinking public budgets while designing policies to make education more effective and responsive to growing demand. The 2011 edition of Education at a Glance: OECD Indicators enables countries to see themselves in the light of other countries' performance. It provides a broad array of comparable indicators on [...]

China
This website is provided by the China's University And College Admission System (CUCAS), "the official online portal for international students applying to China's universities". The different rankings provide an overview over "top universities" concerning different subjects, different programmes (undergraduate, postgraduate, ...), or [...]


(Professional) Associations and Unions

China
On its homepage, the Chinese Education and Research Network (CERNET) provides information about the Chinese education system (last updated in 2001), sorted by education sectors. You will also find some information about educational research, policy and statistics. Unfortunately, most of the English information seems to have been updated [...]

China
The "National Committee of the Chinese Educational, Scientific, Cultural, Health and Sports Workers' Union" (JKWWT) is a socalled Industrial Union and member of the All-China Federation of Trade Unions (ACFTU). Its website provides information on the work of the committee, on news about working conditions in the educational sector, on [...]


German Commitment in China

China; Germany
Official website of the German-Chinese Year of Science and Education 2009/10. The website provides information on research and educational policies, on education landsacapes, on educational and university cooperation, on events, partners, supported projects and official statements and memoranda. [Abstract: Editors of Education [...]

Germany; China
Under the category "International Affairs", the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) provides information on the partnership between Germany and China in the educational and research sector. The website provides an introductory text on the partnership, as well as news on relevant events and many links to [...]

Germany; China
This website provides information on the official cooperation in education and research between Germany and China. Among others, this includes information on funding opportunities, on the political framework, on priorities of the cooperation, on research and education in China, on the German-Chinese Innovation Platform and more. [...]

China; Germany
The German Federal Foreign Office provides a short overview over scientific and technological cooperation and educational exchange between Germany and China. You will find some key data as well as concrete partners, agreements and projects. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Germany; China
The Sino-German Centre for Science Promotion (CDZ) was created jointly by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (NSFC) and the German Rsearch Foundation (DFG). The cooperation therefor mainly takes place in the natural, life, engineering and managament sciences. The website provides information on the Chinese and the [...]


Research Literature on Education in China

The German Education Portal provides an integrated search over several databases in Germany and two international databases containing literature from the educational research. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

The German Education Portal provides an integrated search over several databases in Germany and two international databases containing literature from the educational research. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Im folgenden Beitrag wird Bildung in China mit dem Schwerpunkt Volksrepublik China (VR China) unter den Aspekten der Bildungsgeschichte, der Bildungsadministration, der Bildungsplanung, der Struktur des Bildungssystems, des privaten Bildungssektors und der Erwachsenenbildung abgehandelt. Zu einem besseren Verständnis werden zunächst einige Angaben zur Geschichte Chinas [...]


China`s BRICS Cooperations

Brazil; international; China; India; Russian Federation
"Ciência sem Fronteiras" (Science Without Borders) is a broad Brasilian scholarship programm. It aims at promoting up to 100,000 Brasilian students until 2014/2015 and helping them to spend part of their studies in a foreign country.The website provides information on the scholarship [...]

China; Brazil
Short article by the China Scholarship Council on the China-Brazil Education Forum (Diálogo Brasil-China em Educação) held on 19-21.11.12 in Brazil. A focus was on higher education and languages. The forum doesn't have a website of its own. You will find the programme of the forum here: Programme.[Abstract: Editors of [...]

China; Russian Federation
This chronology of China-Russia cooperation from 1999-2002 is provided by the Chinese TV channel CCTV. Amongst others, it mentions the "Sino-Russian Committee of Cooperation in Education, Culture, Health and Sports", which took place in december 2000, as well as the following meetings. The last one took place in [...]

China; India
This information is provided by the Chinese embassy in India. You will find information for Indian students who would like to study in China, information on language courses as well as news on cooperation between India and China in the educational sector. [Abstract: Editors of Education Worldwide]

Street Sign with stylised school children and a Chinese inscription in Suzhou, China
Street Sign with stylised school children in Suzhou, China.
Copyright: Gwydion M. Williams; cut by: N. Cohen CC BY 2.0


China-Africa Relations in the Field of Education from Different Perspectives
From a European Perspective

"The paper studies the modalities which are used by China in its human resource cooperation with Africa in general, and where relevant with South Africa in particular. It covers the human resource dimensions of the Forum on China Africa Cooperation (FOCAC), pledges, paying particular attention to the latest round of commitments from the November 2009 Ministerial Conference in [...]


From an African Perspective

China; Africa South of the Sahara
This article was published in the University World News and provides an overview over the current African-Chinese relationship and cooperation in the field of education. The author also compares this relationship to the nort-south relationship between Europe / USA and Africa. Milton O Obamba is a research [...]


From a Chinese Perspective

This paper was presented at the China-Africa Links Workshop 2006 at the Center on China's Transnational Relations of the Hong Kong University of Science & Technology. "This paper reviews the course of Sino-African Education Cooperation from 1949 till present, and also summarizes its characteristics, experience, and lessons. The more-than-50-year Sino-African Education [...]

Last Update: 06.04.2016  -  N. Cohen ;

China News

  1. University World News: China
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  1. Is China the new lodestar for Africa’s students? (Uni World News 07.04.17)
  2. China in Africa: empire-builders or alliance-makers? (THE 21.04.16)
  1. China ups Africa support with training, scholarships (12/15)
  1. UNESCO Science Report 2015: China
  1. China universities 'must shun Western values'
  1. China’s Higher Education Engagement with Africa: A Different Partnership and Cooperation Model?
  1. China media: University entrance exam (Gaokao) - 06.06.2014
  1. Blackboard cooperation: China’s role in educating Africa
  1. Confucius who? [China-Africa]
  1. Cooperation through education [Africa]: Bridging differences with the Chinese Government scholarship programme

Literature Search

  1. CrossAsia - Virtual Library East and Southeast Asia

Wikipedia

  1. Section “Education“ (article on China)

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